ЦЕЛЬ УРОКА – формирование языковой
ЗАДАЧИ УРОКА –
1. Совершенствование лексических навыков
2. Совершенствование навыка аудирования
3. Совершенствование навыка чтения с полным
4. Совершенствование навыка аналитического
Данный урок-лекция основывается на ранее
изученной теме "Varieties of English” блока №8 УМК
"MATRIX”, intermediate (Kathy Gude, Michel Duckworth
Издательство Oxford University Press, 2002 г.) и служит
образцом для создания собственных проектных
работ учащимися. В конце урока учащимся
предлагается выбрать тему для работы над
проектом ‘VARIETIES OF ENGLISH’
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Сообщение темы и цели урока.
Лекция с демонстрацией слайдов.
Выполнение задания на перевод с австралийского
Аудирование песни на австралийском языке.
Socio-Historical Linguistic Context
Australian English began diverging from British English shortly after
the foundation of
the Australian penal colony of New South Wales in 1788. British convicts
(including Cockneys from London), came mostly from large English cities.
They were joined
by free settlers, military personnel and administrators, often with
However, a large part of the convict body were Irish, with at least 25%
Ireland. There were other populations of convicts from non-English
speaking areas of
Britain, such as the Welsh and Scots.
Already in 1827 Peter Cunningham, in his book Two Years in New
reported that native-born white Australians of the time spoke with a
and vocabulary, with a strong Cockney influence.
The transportation of convicts to Australia ended in 1868, but
immigration of free
settlers from Britain, Ireland and elsewhere continued. Thus, the former
English began as a mixture of Cockney, Irish, Welsh and Scotish.
The American military personnel in World War II brought American
influence; though most
words were short-lived; and only okay, you guys, and gee
persisted. Since the 1950s the American influence on language in
Australia has mostly come
from pop culture, the mass media, computer software and the internet.
Some words, such as freeway
and truck, have even been naturalised so completely that few
American, British and Australian variants exist side-by-side; in many
cases – freeway
and motorway (used in New South Wales) for instance – regional,
ethnic variation within Australia typically defines word usage. Words of
Irish origin are
used such as bum for "backside" (Irish bun), tucker
"food", as well as one or two native English words whose meaning have
under Irish influence, such as paddock for "field".
Variation and Changes
Three main varieties of Australian English are spoken according to
general and cultivated. They often, but not always,
reflect the social class
or educational background of the speaker.
Broad Australian English is recognisable and familiar to
English speakers around
the world because it is used to identify Australian characters in
non-Australian films and
The majority of Australians speak with the general Australian
words such as mobile (phone) predominate in most cases.
Cultivated Australian English has some similarities to
Pronunciation, and is often mistaken for it.
There are no strong variations in accent and pronunciation across
different states and
Australian English has some peculiarities in pronunciation.
But surely, the most remarkable changes appeared to be in vocabulary.
In 1945 Sidney J. Baker published the book The Australian Language
which was a
milestone in the emergence of a separate Australian Standard.
Australian English has many words that some consider unique to the
language. One of the
best known is outback,, meaning a remote, sparsely populated
area. Another is The
bush meaning either a native forest or a country area in general.
- Fair dinkum can mean "are you telling me the truth?”,"this
truth!”,or"this is ridiculous!”depending on
context - the
disputed origin dates back to the gold rush in the 1850s, "dinkum”
being derived from
the Chinese word for "gold” or "real gold”: fair dinkum is
- ExtinctEast Midlands dialect in England: dinkum means
hard work or
- Dinky-di means true or devoted: a ‘dinky-di
Aussie’ is a
G'day is well known as a stereotypical Australian greeting -
it is worth noting
that G'day is not synonymous with the expression "Good
Day”, and is
never used as an expression for "farewell". Many of these terms have
adopted into British English via popular culture and family links.
Speaking about word-forming, we may say that Australian English has a
unique set of
diminutives formed by adding -o or -ie (-y) to the
ends of (often
abbreviated) words. There does not appear to be any particular pattern
to which of these
suffixes is used.
Examples with the -o ending include
considered very offensive)
Smoke or coffee/tea break
Examples of the -ie (-y) ending include
Someone who lives in the bush
Day off sick from work
Occasionally, a -za diminutive is used, usually for personal
- Barry becomes Bazza,
- Karen becomes Kazza and
- Sharon becomes Shazza.
There are also a lot of abbreviations in Australian English without
Examples of these are the words
beaut (great, beautiful),
BYO (Bring Your Own restaurant,
party, barbecue etc),
- deli (delicatessen),
- hoon (hooligan),
- nana (banana),
- roo (kangaroo),
- uni (university),
- ute (utility truck or vehicle)
Influence of Australian Aboriginal languages
Some elements of Aboriginal languages have been adopted by Australian
mainly as names for places, flora and fauna (for example dingo)
and local culture.
Many such are localised, and do not form part of general Australian use,
such as kangaroo, boomerang, budgerigar, wallaby
and so on
have become international. Beyond that, little has been adopted into the
except for some localised terms and slang. Some examples are cooee and
yakka. The former is used as a high-pitched call, for attracting
(pronounced ) which travels long distances. Cooee
is also a notional distance: if he's within cooee, we'll spot him.
means hard work and is derived from yakka, from the Jagara
spoken in the Brisbane region.
We cannot but mention unique and, indeed, colourful Australian
metaphors and similes,
- as bald as a bandicoot –совершенно лысый
- as cunning as a dunny rat - коварный, пронырливый
- as lonely as a country dunny – покинутый, одинокий
- flat out like a lizard drinking – очень занятый
let alone Australian expressions, as
- in full feather – при полном параде
- rough end of a pineapple - неудачная сделка,
- not to know Christmas from Bourke Street - не иметь понятия
- not to have a brass razoo – очень бедный
- dingo’s breakfast – без завтрака
These are the best-known Australianisms in the English-speaking
|Australian English||World Standard English|
|daks||trousers (BrE), pants (AmE)|
|lolly||sweet (BrE), candy (AmE)|
Summing up, we may say that it is quite possible to understand
Australian if you know
some peculiarities of the language.