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Урок английского языка "Word Transformation Technignes"
17.06.2013, 10:58:04

Spelling Review: Adding Suffixes

A suffix is a sound added to the end of a word to form a new word:

word suffix new word

foolish + -ness (state of being) = foolishness (state of being foolish)

Study these suffixes and their meanings:

suffix meaning sample word
-able able to be consumable (able to be consumed)
-er one who consumer (one who consumes)
-or one who creator (one who creates)
-ist one who typist (one who types)
-ly in a ____ manner savagely (in a savage manner)
-ness state of being numbness (state of being numb)
-ure act of exposure (act of exposing)
-ed (ending of past participle) Yesterday we consumed half.
-ing (ending of present participle) Today we are consuming the rest.

Adding Suffixes

1. As a rule, do not add or drop a letter when adding a suffix to a word. Keep all the letters of the word and all the letters of the suffix.

intimate + ly = intimately
usual + ly = usually
sudden + ness = suddenness
violin + ist = violinist

2. However, if the word ends in silent e, drop the e before a suffix beginning with a vowel. (Remember: a, e, i, o, and u are vowels.)

believe + able = believable
recieve + er = receiver
menace + ed = menaced
menace + ing = menacing
supervise + or = supervisor
seize + ure = siezure

Spelling Review: Turning Adjectives Into Adverbs

Rule: To change an adjective to an adverb, we usually add -LY.

Adjective   suffix   adverb
extreme + ly = extremely
firm + ly = firmly
equal + ly = equally

Exceptions

1. If the adjective ends in a consonant plus -LE, change the -LE to -LY.

Adjective adverb
probable probably
idle idly
ample amply

2. If the adjective ends in -Y preceded by a consonant, change Y to I before adding -LY.

Adjective   suffix   adverb
hasty + ly = hastily
flimsy + ly = flimsily

3. If the adjective ends in -IC, add AL before attaching -LY.

drastic + al + ly = drastically
scientific + al + ly = scientifically

4. Finally, note these special exceptions:

duly, truly, wholly

Spelling Review: -ABLE, -IBLE, -ABILITY, -IBILITY

ABLE or -IBLE?

A. Change tibe following nouns to adjectives ending in -ABLE or -IBLE. The first one has been done for you as an example.

noun adjective
imagination imaginable
presentation _______________________________
application _______________________________
irritation _______________________________
adoration _______________________________

answers: Each adjective ends in -ABLE—presentable, applicable, irritable, adorable.

From the above, you can see that an adjective ends in -ABLE (rather than -IBLE) if it has a corresponding noun form ending in -ATION. Exception: sensation—sensible.

B. Except for the clue in A, above, there is no easy way to tell whether an adjective ends in -ABLE or -IBLE. Therefore, study the following:

Frequently Used -ABLE Adjectives

acceptable conceivable disposable miserable
advisable consumable excusable perishable
applicable depandeble hospitable predictable
believable despicable intolerable probable

Frequently Used -IBLE Adjectives

convertible feasible invisible plausible
digestible flexible irresistible possible
divisible horrible legible responsible
edible incredible negligible sensible
eligible inexaustible permissible terrible

C. The suffix -ABLE or -IBLE does not change when a prefix is added or removed.

un + predictable = unpredictable
improbable - im = probable
ir + responsible = irresponsible
inexhaustible - in =exhaustible

-ABILITY or -IBILITY?

D. Nouns ending in –ABILITY come from adjectives ending in -ABLE. Nouns ending in
-IBILJTY come from adjectives ending in -IBLE.

Adjective noun
advisable advisability
responsible responsibility

Spelling Review: Turning Verbs Into Nouns

A. Three suffixes for turning verbs into nouns are -ION, -ATION, and -URE. They all have the same meaning: "act or result of."

verb + suffix = noun
anticipate + ion = anticipation (act or result of anticipating)
afflict + ion = affliction (act or result of being afflicted)
adore + ation = adoration (act or result of adoring)
consider + ation = consideration (act or result of considering)
expose + ure = exposure (act or result of exposing)
press + ure = pressure (act or result of pressing)

reminder: If the verb ends in silent e (as in anticipate, adore, and expose, above), drop the e before adding -ION, -ATION, and -URE because these suffixes begin with a vowel.

B. By dropping the suffixes -ION, -ATION, and -URE, we may turn nouns into verbs.

Noun + suffix = verb
transaction + ion = transact
confrontation + ation = confront
pressure + ure = press

If a silent e was dropped when the noun was formed, it must be put back into the verb.

Noun- suffix     = verb
pollution ion + e = pollute
adoration ation + e = adore
exposure ure + e = expose

Spelling Review: Turning Nouns Into Adjectives

A. You can change some nouns to adjectives by dropping a suffix.

1. Dropping-NESS

Noun- suffix = adjective
covetousness - ness = covetous
ripeness - ness = ripe
happiness - ness = happy

2. Dropping -ITY

joviality - ity = jovial
insanity - ity = insane

B. You can change some nouns to adjectives by adding a suffix.

1.Adding -FUL

Noun + suffix = adjective
beauty + ful = beautiful
care + ful = careful

2. Adding -LESS

care + less = careless
pity + less = pitiless

3. Adding -OUS

peril + ous = perilous
victory + ous = victorious

4. Adding –Y

health + y = healthy
ice + y = icy
onion + y = oniony

C. You can change some nouns to adjectives by changing a suffix.

1. Changing -ANCE or -ANCY to –ANT

Noun   adjective
abundance —> abundant
vacancy —> vacant

2. Changing -ENCE or -ENCY to -ENT

corpulence —> corpulent
urgency —> urgent

D. Note the spelling irregularities in the following:

awe + ful = awful (silent e dropped even though suffix begins with a consonant)

malice + ous = malicious (after c, e changes to i before -ous)
garlic + y = garlicky (k inserted before y)

Spelling Review: Turning Verbs Into Adjectives

Increase your store of adjectives by getting some of them from verbs.

A. You can form an adjective by adding -ING to a verb.

verb       adjective
starve + ing = starving

"What will not a man give for bis starving children and his old father!"

An -ING adjective is also called a present participle.

Spelling Reminders:

1. Drop silent e before adding -ING.

starve + ing = starving
freeze + ing = freezing

2. Change ie to y before adding -1

die + ing = dying
tie + ing = tying

B. You can also form an adjective by adding -ED to a regular verb.

verb       adjective
starve + ed = starved

"The man was thin... but not starved..."

An -ED adjective is also known as a past participle.

Spelling Reminders:

1. Drop silent e before adding -ED.

starve + ed = starved
increase + ed = increased

2. If the verb ends in y preceded by a consonant, change the y to i before adding -ED.

worry + ed = worried
satisfy + ed = satisfied

3. Do not change the y if it is preceded by a vowel.

annoy + ed = annoyed
decay + ed = decayed

C. If the verb is irregular—for example, break, broke, broken—you cannot add -ED. I use the last prinsipal part—broken—as an adjective.

Don't step on the broken glass! (break, broke, broken)
We skated on the frozen lake. (freeze, froze, frozen)
Can you help the lost child? (lose, lost, lost)

The last principal part is of course, a past participle.

D. Note how Pearl Buck formed adjectives from verbs in the following sentence:

Wang Lung felt in his own shriveled body the last remaining strength of life gathering into a

devastating anger against this man, his uncle.

shriveled (from the verb shrivel) is an
adjective modifying the noun body
remaining
(from the verb remain) is an
adjective modifying the noun strength
devastating
(from the verb devastate) is an
adjective modifying the noun anger

Spelling Review: Turning Adjectives Into Nouns by Adding –ITY

He was not merely a big snake, I thought—he was a circus monstrosity. His abominable muscularity, his loathsome, fluid motion, somehow made me sick.

Note how, in the above, Willa Gather has turned adjectives into nouns by adding the suffix -ITY, meaning "condition or state."

adjective + suffix = noun
monstrous + ity = monstrosity (condition of being monstrous; something monstrous)
muscular + ity = muscularity (state of being muscular)

Forming -ITY nouns

1. As a rule, do not drop any letters. However, drop silent e before -ITY.

regular + ity = regularity
vital + ity = vitality
rigid + ity = rigidity

But

mature + ity = maturity

2. If the adjective ends in -BLE, change le toil before adding -ITY.

sociable + ity - sociabflity
possible + ity = possibility

3. Some -OUS adjectives lose the letter u.

adjective   noun
monstrous —> monstrosity
curious —> curiosity
generous —> generosity
pompous —> pomposity

4. A few adjectives add -TY only,

loyal —> loyalty-
novel —> novelty
cruel —> cruelty
subtle —> subtlety
jolly —> jollity

5. The following adjectives lose an e but add -IETY.

improper —> impropriety
proper —> propriety
sober —> sobriety

6. Finally, learn these irregularities:

anxious —> anxiety
notorious —> notoriety
brief —> brevity
clear —> clarity
gay —> gaiety or gayety
humble —> humility
poor —> poverty
vain —> vanity

Spelling Review: Adding Suffixes to Words Ending in – IC

1. Before adding -ED, -ING, -ER, or -Y to a word ending in -IC, insert the letter k.

picnic + ed = picnicked
frolic + ed = frolicked
mimic + ed = mimicking
panic + ed = panicking
picnic + er = picnicking
panic + y = panicky

The k keeps the c from being pronounced as s.

2. Reminder: Before adding -LY to a word ending in -IC, insert AL.

frantic + ly = frantically
drastic + ly = drastically

3. Reminder: When removing a suffix from a word ending in -1C, drop any extra letters that have been inserted.

frolicked - ed = frolic (k dropped)
tragically - ly = tragic (al dropped)

Категория: ИНОСТРАННЫЕ ЯЗЫКИ | Добавил: tineydgers | Теги: ENGLISH - Новейшие Технологии в И, английский язык в школе, Конспект урока по иностранному язык, преподавание иностранного, учителю иностранного языка
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